Grade 10
  first term
  Measurement And Units

  PH.1.01 - Make measurements precisely and accurately using a variety of measurement tools.
      Time : Week 01 - Week 02
1. Identify and describe systems of measurement
2. Convert units between different systems of measurement
3. Determine sources of measurement errors
4. Use basic measurement tools to measure/compute length, area, volume and time
5. Use dimensional analysis to verify or predict a physical law
Some time should be spent comparing fundamental units such as length with derived units such as velocity. "How can you measure the capacity (volume) of a regularly-shaped object such as a refrigerator? How can you measure the capacity (volume) of an irregularly-shaped object?"
  Newtonian Physics

  PH.1.02 - Use Newton's 3rd Law to identify the forces of interaction that exist between pairs of objects (Newtonian pairs)
      Time : Week 03 - Week 04
1. Differentiate between physical systems in equilibrium and non-equilibrium.
2. Apply Newton's third law in physical systems (i.e. identify the action and reaction forces)
3. Draw a force diagram for objects in physical equilibrium
4. Recognize that force pairs between objects are equal and opposite, even if objects are of different mass.
This is an interesting way of starting a description of forces, Instead of a force as something causing an acceleration, here a force is an interaction that opposes another interaction...with quantitative details put off for a while. This is a good place to begin classifying forces as Field vs Contact... but mention that even contact forces are ultimately field forces... and that there are 4 fundamental forces : gravity, EM, strong & weak nuclear

  PH.1.03 - Predict an object's motion based on the forces that are acting on it.
      Time : Week 04 - Week 06
1. Identify forces acting on an object and represent them pictorially in a free body diagram.
2. Use free-body diagram to determine net force acting on a body via graphical vector addition
3. Given all of the forces acting on a body, use Newton's 1st law to determine whether the object is in equilibrium (i.e. moving at constant velocity, including 0)
4. Given all of the forces acting on a body, apply Newton's 2nd law to determine the acceleration of an object not in equilibrium
5. Knowing the state of motion of an object but not all forces on a body, determine the resultant of the unknown force(s)
6. Describe why an object moving in a circle experiences a centripetal acceleration towards the center of rotation, even though it is moving at constant speed..
7. Identify the force or forces that cause a body to move in a circle about a fixed point in space
1. Suggestion: keep things mathematically simple on this first intro to Newton's Laws. e.g. only use graphical addition and subtraction of vectors 2. Recommend that prediction be kept to direction and a qualitative indication of strength. e.g. "block will move at an angle close to60 degrees with an acceleration less than if the two forces had acted in the same direction" (given two different length forces acting at right angles) 3. 1-D kinematics will be covered in mechanics starting at beginning of semester 1, so not much time is needed to go over kinematic variables...except that acceleration as change in velocity in time is crucial. i.e. is should be stressed that this is how equilibrium will be defined ... i.e. when there is no change in motion 4.Using rulers and protractors, a simple activity can ask for the approximate length and direction of a force that will produce equilibrium. 5.When doing centripetal force introduce the idea of "fictitious forces". In this case the common use of "centrifugal force" is fictitious because the real force that causes circular motion is centripetal. ... We tend to make things about us, so if we move to the right as our car turns left, we think a centrifugal force pushes us to the right. Instead, we lack a centripetal force to the left that would cause us to move in a circle with the car. This idea of fictitious forces is an important one becuase it is essential in Newtonian physics to clearly identify the forces that are acting. We will spiral back to this several times. The next will be in the discussion of force and pressure changes in Y1 S2. 6. More on fictitious forces: When one is in a rotating frame of reference, or any accelerating frame, then the centripetal becomes a centrifugal force. However Newton's laws are meant to be followed in an inertial reference frame, i.e. one that is not accelerating. "How much force must be applied to a 750-kg automobile traveling at 30 km/hr to cause it to stop in 6 seconds?"

  PH.1.04 - Model the gravitational force on an object near the earth as proportional to the object's mass, with constant of...
      Time : Week 07 - Week 08
1. Differentiate between mass and weight
2. Solve problems to determine the mass, weight and apparent weight in different physical situations
3. Apply the General Law of Gravitation to qualitatively rank the gravitational field of different planets (using only M/R^2)
4. Identify the action-reaction pairs that exist when an object close to earth experiences a force due to gravity (i.e. a weight)
Recommend the stress on "field strength" for a few reasons: 1) to compare with electric and magnetic fields later 2) Field is an essential concept used to describe "action at a distance" forces 3) forces have already been classified as Field or Contact 4) one can talk about field strengh diminishing the farther from earth's surface, or getting stronger near jupiter, etc. i.e. field strength depends on the planet, and distance from the planet, and can be compared without referring to the weight of an object 5) mention that g due to earth is NEVER 0 for finitie distances. And, in fact g will be = 0 only at one spot in universe ... where effects from all suns, planets, asteroids, metors, etc... cancel out. In other words, the idea of "weighlessness" is something different from the absence of weight, which is an almost universal misunderstanding of the situation. i.e. weightless objects almost always have weight. WEightless only means that Apparent Weight = 0.
  Center of mass, torque, and general equilibrium

  PH.1.05 - determine the conditions for stability of extended rigid bodies by considering translational and rotational...
      Time : Week 09 - Week 10
1. Determine the center of mass for different objects and systems of objects
2. Calculate the magnitude of the total torque acting on an object
3. Identify forces and torques acting on a stationary extended object, and be able to apply the equilibrium torque condition.
4. Determine the torque of a simple machine: the lever.
1. Here the idea of equilibrium is extended to include NO CHANGE in ROTATIONAL motion. rotational motion does not occur in mechanics until year 3, so this idea needs to be introduced here, but nothing overly mathematical should be done. Systems that increase spin rate up or slow down spinning are clearly cases where rotational equilibrium is not the case. Disks spininng at a constant rate are in equilibrium, etc. 2.Similarly for torques: using example of opening a large door, develop idea that amount of angular acceleration will be proportional to how much you push, and where you pust wrt axis of rotation of door. Then talk about different directions (open/close the door) and develop a simplified way to do torque problems: only consider ones where forces are perpendicular to motion arms, producing either CCW or CW rotation (call these + or -) 3.Mention that torques are vectors b/c they are made up of forces...but they will be handled in greater depth later... 4.Keep simple machine discussion to a minimum because work has not yet been defined. It will come later, so this is the beginning of a work spiral. Instead, focus on the torque applied to a lever, the simplest of simple machines. The discussion of a lever is important obviously because this LO is about torque. Mechanical advantage can be mentioned, as well as the fact that the lever is a simple machine, but I wouldn't discuss other machines here 5.As for center of masss, keep it simple as well. It will be covered in more detail at beginning of module on momentum and impulse. Stick to discrete masses in 1-D. A lab activity determining the center of mass of a 2-D object is recommend as well
  Restoring Forces

  PH.1.06 - Understand that certain material objects (e.g. springs that follow Hooke's Law) generate restoring forces that act to...
      Time : Week 11 - Week 12
1. Measure spring constant of a linear spring
2. Measure stress and strain of different materials
3. Calculate stress and strain of different materials
4. Measure Young's modulus for a material
5. Calculate Young's modulus for a material
6. Identify unknown materials using Young's modulus
stress that Hooke's LAw is not Universally valid. Instead the word "law" is more about materials that deform linearly with applied force. When they obey the"law" they are Hooke's LAw materials.This is similar to Ohms' Law, which will be dicsussed in Year 2 Spend some time explaing similarity/difference between spring constant and young's modulus

  PH.1.07 - Predict an object's motion when it is subject to a restoring force
      Time : Week 11 - Week 12
1. Determine the limit of elasticity of different springs
2. Use Hooke's law to design spring suspensions
3. Apply Hooke's Law to measure weight of an object
Springs can be used in equilibrium situations and non-equilibrium. Good to mention this to students. Equilibrium: measure weight of a hanging mass Non-equilibrium: Qualitatively determine the motion of a friction mass/spring system (horizontal) not in equilibrium ... arguing that it will look like a sine curve... with simple demo, show that frequency will depend on spring constant and inversely on mass...with little of no effect due to amplitude...this will be done in detail later in Mechanics year 2...
  Second Term
  Fluid Mechanics

  PH.1.08 - Use pressure difference between two points of a fluid and Newton's laws to analyze behavior of that fluid.
      Time : Week 01 - Week 03
1. Determine pressure change as function of height in columns of fluid
2. Explain how a mercury barometer measures atmospheric pressure
3. Determine atmospheric pressure as a function of altitude
4. Convert between different pressure units (such as: kPa, atm,mm Hg)
5. Explain how a straw works
6. Explain how a manometer works
7. Measure the gauge pressure of a trapped gas
8. Use manometers & barometers
9. Explain different boiling points of water at different altitudes
10. Measure the apparent weight of an immersed object.
11. Determine the Buoyant force on a submerged, or floating object
12. Use Archimedes principle to explain why large ships do not sink
Important here to stress that liquids and gases are considered "fluids" Also, the simplifying assumption of homogeneous substances, i.e. density is constant. This is a good module to talk once again about fictitiousforces. Similar to the centrifigul force idea discussed in Semester 1, hear we have the vacuum force. Many think that there such thing as suction, as if something in your vacuum cleaner reaches out, grabs some dust, and pulls it up the vacuum hose. Vacuum cleaners, and drinking from straws, etc., is only possible when there is a pressure difference (and the force this causes can overcome graviity to pullit up and/or in. Archimedes should be used in a variety of situations - from holding heavy objects underwater to how to design hot-air balloons
  Fluid Dynamics

  PH.1.09 - Apply principles of fluid dynamics to determine pressure and velocity in a variety of typical fluid systems
      Time : Week 04 - Week 06
1. Apply Bernoulli's Principle in daily life
2. Explore alternative energy applications of fluid dynamics such as windmills, hydrological dams, tidal generation.
3. Determination of flow rate.
4. Determination of volume rate.
5. Solve problems on flow rate.
6. Explain some phenomena on equation of continuity.
7. Explain some applications on Bernoulli's equation.
After covering continuity and pascal principle, this section will be the first in which energy stuff is described in more than a passing way. This is the beginning of a spiral approach to work and energy... Suggestion: begin by defining work by constant pressure as pdV. (Is this done in CHM somewhere?) Then define kinetic energy of fluid in terms of density and dV. Then argue for a Work-energy theorem for fluids which are moving in laminar flow in a HORIZONAL pipe. i.e. begin with a simple derivation of a restricted BErnoulli equation (one at same vertical position wrt earth) do some horizontal problems...then go vertical, arguing for a term that involves height as well because as fluid goes up there's no way it doewn's lose velocity. In other words, you can get to a full statement of Bernoulli .... and do a bunch of problems using it...remarking that the students will see much more about conservation of energy in YEar 2...

  PH.1.10 - Design a system for efficient energy production using concepts of temperature, heat and thermal energy.
      Time : Week 07 - Week 10
1. Differentiate between temperature, thermal energy and heat
2. Measure temperature
3. Solve problem of general law of thermometer
4. Describe how temperature changes as a result energy transfer to a system Convert between different temperature scales (k – f - c)
5. Describe the natural sources of heat
6. Explain the idea of solar heat collectors.
7. Identify the uses of solar heat collector in daily life
with 1st law of Thermo coming in the next LO, this LO should focus on heating/cooling properties of different materials as a function of wavelength of incoming radiation Convection, Conduction, RAdiation should be compared...where possible by experiment. This should be more of an empirical LO, with simple mathematics involved in design. e.g. a question about how large a solar collector must be given energy needs , efficiency, and incident radiation would be good

  PH.1.11 - Analyze energy flow in typical heating and cooling applications by applying the 1st Law of Thermodynamics.
      Time : Week 10 - Week 12
1. Explain p-v graphs
2. Calculate the work done as gases are compressed/expanded both mathematically and graphically
3. Determine equilibrium temperatures in heating/cooling situation
4. Describe how 1st Law of thermodynamics is applicable for each type of thermodynamic process.
5. Explain methods to produce low temperature near absolute zero.
6. Describe applications for low temperature physics.
Be sure to perform experiment to demonstrate conservation of thermal energy .... domonstrate that area under p-v graph is energy transfer - connection to calculus