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first term

General Law Of Gravitation (2019)

PH.2.01 - Use Newton's Universal Law of Gravitation when considering the effects of gravity far from the Earth's surface, or...

Time : Week 01 - Week 02
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PH.2.01 - Use Newton's Universal Law of Gravitation when considering the effects of gravity far from the Earth's surface, or...

Time : Week 01 - Week 02

1. Determine the gravitational force between any two bodies - both celestial or earthly

2. Deduce the factors affect the gravitational field intensity at a point.

3. Use universal gravitation to explain why g near earth is 98m/s^2

4. Calculate the ratio between the gravitational field strength on two different planets

5. Calculate the escape velocity for different planets

6. Calculate the orbital velocity of satellite at a certain height.

7. Compare the free fall acceleration on Earth and on the Moon

A good idea to stress the idea of inverse-square law here.So many things in physics follow this mathematical form: electric fields, intensity, .... The field idea is really important - especially because of what is to come with electricity and magnetism, where field is stressed much more than actual forces. There is a chance to follow up on energy here - especially with determination of escape velocities. Students have seen energy in Year 1 already - with fluids and thermo

Electric Fields and Forces (2019)

PH.2.02 - Use concept of a field to analyze the similarities and differences between electrostatic and gravitational forces via...

Time : Week 03 - Week 04
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PH.2.02 - Use concept of a field to analyze the similarities and differences between electrostatic and gravitational forces via...

Time : Week 03 - Week 04

1. Explain the repulsive and attractiveforce between two charges

2. Explain methods of electrification

3. Identify the type of accumulated electric charge on an object by using electroscope.

4. Compare electrostatic force between two objects to the gravitational force betweenthem

5. Determine direction of total electrostatic force on a charge in the presence of other charges, using vector addition

6. Determine direction of the total electricfield at a point in space in presence of nearby electric charges, using vector addition

7. Qualitatively describe the electric field near a dipole

8. Draw electric field lines near a charge distribution

9. determine where (if any) field-free regions exist near a charge distribution

The Field idea very important in understanding non-contact forces! stress that all non-contact forces are "carried" by a specific field that acts on a specific property of an object (mass, charge...and later, charge and velocity) Stress graphical as opposed to analytic methods for determining direction of electric forces and fields.Tie-in to vector work in mechanics, of course Field lines near dipoles and other simple charge distributions are very important - Also important to discuss the situation where field-free regions are to be determined. There is a connection to equilibrium here.

Direct Current Circuits (2019)

PH.2.03 - Use the concepts of electric potential energy and voltage to analyze the flow of current through conductors and...

Time : Week 05 - Week 06
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PH.2.04 - Analyze DC circuits with simple resistive elements (i.e. ohmic devices)

Time : Week 07 - Week 08
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PH.2.03 - Use the concepts of electric potential energy and voltage to analyze the flow of current through conductors and...

Time : Week 05 - Week 06

1. Explain the required conditions for continuous flow of electric charge.

2. Measure some physical quantities as voltage, current intensity and ohmic resistance of a conductor.

3. Verify Ohm’s law practically and measureV-I diagrams

4. Use the graph between terminal voltage of the battery and the current intensityto find the EMF of the cell and its internal resistance

5. Solve DC circuitproblems that require use of Ohm's law

6. Differentiate between Ohmic and non-Ohmic materials

7. Understand how the length and cross-sectional area of a conducting wire affects its electrical resistance

Students will be able to distinguish between ohmic and non-ohmic materials and learn what factors affect resistance. Very important to stress that many devices DO NOT follow Ohm's Law, and hence "Law" does not mean never to be violated, A discussion that includes conduction electrons, average drift velocity, is a good one....it ties in with energy states to be discussed in quantum physics, and links back to early kinematics b/c charges are accelerated by electric field, speeding up until they collide Spend some time developing the important relationship that R is proportional to length/area, with proportionality constant the resistivity of the material.this will be very helpful when considering series and parallel resistors in the next LO

PH.2.04 - Analyze DC circuits with simple resistive elements (i.e. ohmic devices)

Time : Week 07 - Week 08

1. Determine the net resistance of series and parallel combinations of resistors in a DC circuit

2. Analyze a DC circuit containing only series and/or parallel resistors to predict current, and voltage through all devices

3. Given a set of resistors and a power supply, designelectric circuits to obtain the largest total current leaving the power supplyandthe smallest total current leaving the power supply

4. Use Kirchoff's Laws to solve for current andvoltage, in a multi-loop DC circuit containing resistors

simple stuff only:no bridges stress that parallel and series are NOT the only way be careful to explain that parallel does not mean the resistors are physically parallel IN SPACE compare to fluids stress practical combinations:voltage and current dividers Use Resistance proportional to Length/Area from previous LO to come up with rules for combining resistors in series or parallel

Capacitors & Inductors (2019)

PH.2.05 - Analyze the effects on time dependence and energy storage due to simple capacitive elements in DC circuits.

Time : Week 08 - Week 9
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PH.2.05 - Analyze the effects on time dependence and energy storage due to simple capacitive elements in DC circuits.

Time : Week 08 - Week 9

1. Use the fact that capacitance increases with size of surface but decreases with increasing separation to explain why capacitors in parallel

2. Use the fact that capacitance increases with size of surface, but decreases with increasing separation to explain why capacitors in series add reciprocally.

3. Calculate charge and voltage across capacitors in DC circuits once equilibrium is reached

4. Describe i and v characteristics of capacitor in DC circuit with respect to time mathematically and graphically

5. Measure and predict time constants in simple RC circuits

6. Calculate the energy stored in the electric field inside a fully charged capacitor

In addition to energy storage, capacitors help one add time-variation to DC circuits.This can be described non-mathematically by discussing charge buildup on a parallel plate capacitor.i.e. you should be able to convince students that charging will follow a curve that shows an exponential slowing down important applications: flash batteries, defibrillators exponential functions: this has already been argued.Stating that voltage and current are definitely exponentials, with time constant = RC should then be experimental verified Energy storage in Electric FIELD is a strange concept: how can there be energy where there may not be any matter? Important to stress, or show via video, that energy is still stored even if capacitor is in a vacuum With good data analysis software, you should be able to experimentally demonstrate that the current through capacitor is proportional time rate of change of voltage across it , which makes for a great calculus connection

Magnetic Fields & Forces (2019)

PH.2.06 - Predict the direction of magnetic field produced by current-carrying wires in different configurations.

Time : Week 10 - Week 11
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PH.2.07 - Determine the magnetic force on a charged particle moving in a magnetic field and the effects of the force on the...

Time : Week 12 - Week 13
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PH.2.06 - Predict the direction of magnetic field produced by current-carrying wires in different configurations.

Time : Week 10 - Week 11

1. Magnetic field: strength and direction

2. Magnetic field lines

3. Magnetic flux and magnetic flux density .

4. Magnetic domain

5. Magnetic field due to a straight wire

6. Magnetic field due to a loop.

7. Magnetic field due to a solenoid.

8 Rules to determine the direction of magnetic field (Ampere's rule)

9. Polarity of a solenoid.

2. Magnetic field lines

3. Magnetic flux and magnetic flux density .

4. Magnetic domain

5. Magnetic field due to a straight wire

6. Magnetic field due to a loop.

7. Magnetic field due to a solenoid.

8 Rules to determine the direction of magnetic field (Ampere's rule)

9. Polarity of a solenoid.

1. Draw the pattern of magnetic field (i.e. magnetic field lines) of two magnetic poles close to each other (similar and different, i.e north- north and north-south).

2. Draw the pattern of magnetic field (i.e. magnetic field lines) near current-carrying wires in various configurations (eg. straight wires, circular and square loops).

3. Calculate the magnetic field strength and direction at a normal distance from a straight current-carrying wire

4. Calculate the magnetic field strength and direction at the center of a current-carrying loop.

5. Calculate the magnetic field intensity at a point on the axis of a solenoid.

6. Determine the position of the neutral point near two long parallel wires carrying currents in the same or in opposite direction (i.e. the position where the magnetic field = 0)

Use only basic right-hand rule...stick to strictly orthogonal situations seek good simulations show that circular motion of charged particles should be possible...ultimate connection to centripetal force, to be developed in mechanics mention that, like an electric field that can store energy, it will turn out that magnetic fields will also have an energy function is there a connection to the material in CH 3.10?

PH.2.07 - Determine the magnetic force on a charged particle moving in a magnetic field and the effects of the force on the...

Time : Week 12 - Week 13

1. Determine the direction of magnetic force on charges moving in constant magnetic fields

2. Determine the direction of magnetic force on a current-carrying wire in a constant magnetic field

3. Explain the torque that exists on current-carrying loop in a magnetic field (if loop positioned correctly)

4. Explain how an electrical motor works 5. Explain how a galvanometer works 6. Explain how to convert a galvanometer into an ammeter.

7. Explain how to convert a galvanometer into a voltmeter.

At first, extensive use of righthand rule to determine field directions. Then argue that field strength should be proportional to current (not hard to convince. This can be done with a simple demo) Then argue that strength must diminish as you move farther from the current. The question is whether it is invers-square like gravity and electric fields.Turns out that field is only inversely dependent on distance. This should be demonstrated as opposed to deriving formulas such as B = UoI/2PiR, etc. Is there a link to CH 3.10? Note that cross-product will be mathematical developed in mechanics...grade 3

Second Term

Electromagnetic Induction (2019)

PH.2.08 - Use Faraday's law of induction to determine induced voltage in conducting loopdue to changes in magnetic flux.

Time : Week 01 - 0
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PH.2.09 - Analyze the effects on time dependance and energy storage due to simple inductive elements in DC circuits.

Time : Week 02 - 0
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PH.2.10 - Analyze production and transmission of electrical energy via electromagnetic induction.

Time : Week 03 - Week 04
Concepts
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PH.2.11 - Analyze the behavior of transformers using mutual Induction

Time : Week 05 - Week 06
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PH.2.08 - Use Faraday's law of induction to determine induced voltage in conducting loopdue to changes in magnetic flux.

Time : Week 01 - 0

1. Explain electromagnetic induction.

2. Identify the factors that affect the induced EMF in a conductor.

3. Determine the polarity of induced current in a coil.

4. Give examples of electromagnetic induction applications.

5. Calculate induced EMF in a variety of basic situations, including changing B-field, or changing loop area

This LO follows up on experimental evidence from 2.07 that voltage is somehow being produced as current is increasing in coil.There the time rate of change of current was proportional to voltage across inductor. Here the description is in terms of magnetic field: i.e. as field grows in coil, there is an induced voltage somewhere. Here I suggest simple situations where loops are perpendicular to magnetic field /flux should then be introduced...important to show that it is not necessarily magnetic field change that produces induced voltage, but rather magnetic flux change. So situations where field changes, and where area changes should be discussed. Because of its importance, the basic solenoid should be discussed. Its inductance in terms of number of loops, area , etc. can be surmised based on units and an understanding of flux change.

PH.2.09 - Analyze the effects on time dependance and energy storage due to simple inductive elements in DC circuits.

Time : Week 02 - 0

1. Use the fact that inductors act like resistors once current begins flowing to why inductors in series add and inductors in parallel add reciprocally

2. Calculate current through and voltage across inductors in DC circuits once equilibrium is reached

3. describei and v characteristics of inductorin DC circuit with respect to time mathematically and graphically

4. Measure and predict time constants in simple RL circuits

5. Calculate the energy stored in the magnetic field of an inductor when fully charged

Note that much more will be done with induction in the coming LO'sIt is important here to demonstrate the behavior of an inductor in a DC circuit, using language that involves changes in magnetic field and especially flux...but avoid a mathematical analysis. This is the beginning of a spiral approach to magnetic field, which will be revisited quite a bit as year 2 progresses. Also, the intent is to compare to a capacitor, another circuit element that serves as a temporary energy storage device. Similar to capacitors, inductors help one add time-variation to DC circuits. In a manner complementary to a capacitor where current is proportional to time rate of voltage, for an inductor the voltage is proportional to the time rate of change of the current. This is a nice calculus connection, and can be shown with a straightforward time measurement of voltage and current. Covering basic inductors provides a nice spiral bookened to capacitors. They are both similar circuit elements in that they "fight" change to the way charge is flowing or distributed. The capacitor "fights" change in voltage (because of opposite direction E-field growing inside capacitor), while the inductor "fights" change in current because of the induced voltage that arises due to changing magnetic flux in the inductor. Students should learnthat an intriguing balance can be achieved with both in a circuit.band-pass filter, which In fact it may be valuable to ask students for their predictions... The RLC circuit is aband-pass filter, which will be covered later this semester as an example of a very important AC circuit. Finally, this topic provides another oppportunity to talk about energy...only this time the energy is stored in the magnetic field.But the comparison with capacitors and stored energy is one of opposites: maximum energy is stored in the inductor field when the current has reached equilibrium amperage. The capacitor will have maximum energy stored in its field when no current is flowing. LR circuits provide another example of exponential behavior. examples of LR circuits should be emphasized, e.g. solenoid valves

PH.2.10 - Analyze production and transmission of electrical energy via electromagnetic induction.

Time : Week 03 - Week 04

1. Deduce the factors affecting the produced EMF in an A.C. generator.

2. Draw graphs illustrate the relation between (EMF & THETA) and between (EMF & t)

3. Draw graphs illustrate the relation between maximum voltage and the parameters affecting it.

4. Design your own workable model of an A.C. generator.

5. Explain how to Convert A.C. to D.C.

6. Explain what happens on replacing the resistance load in the D.C. dynamo by a battery.

The students will be able to explain the effect of variation of the current in a coil on another coil in a closed circuit. / mention self- inductance...which goes to explaining the circuit behavior seen in basic inductors in Y2S1 Calculation of coupling coefficients and mutual induction coefficient should be done for very simple situations. The goal is to get students to consider the design principles needed to produce and change voltage for power generation and use.

PH.2.11 - Analyze the behavior of transformers using mutual Induction

Time : Week 05 - Week 06

1. Compare between forward and reverse current in mutual induction.

2. Give examples on mutual induction applications

3. Explain the behavior of a tranformer using mutual induction concepts

4. Calculate primary or secondary voltages given appropriate information about transformer coil.

5. Explain step-up and step-down transformers 6. Solve problems on transformer efficiency.

7. Calculate the efficiency of a transformer practically.

8. Design a system to reduce the loss of energy during transmission of energy from power stations to distribution areas using transformers.

9. Explain the eddy current.

10. Give examples of eddy current applications.

11. Compare between A.C. and D.C. transmission of electrical power

There are many skills listed here that are probably at a level higher than is typical in HS; they are more typically associated with EE majors at a university level. I recommend focusing on the conversion of mechanical energy to electrical energy, covering the principles ofmotors vs. generators and discussing the advantages of high-voltage transmission of electrical energy based on minimizing resistive losses...which lead to step-up and step-down transformer design

AC Circuits (2019)

PH.2.12 - Analyze simple AC circuits containing resistive elements.

Time : Week 7 - Week 08
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PH.2.13 - Analyze the filtering charactericstics of circuits containing capacitors and/or inductors

Time : Week 9 - 0
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PH.2.12 - Analyze simple AC circuits containing resistive elements.

Time : Week 7 - Week 08

1. Determine total impedance of an AC circuit made up of series and paralle combinations of resistors

2. Understand difference between peak-peak voltage and current measurements and RMS measurements

This LO also includes a deep connection to harmonic motion.., i.e. oscillating magnet in loop will create AC voltage. (Or moving loop/fixed coil) . I would only mention this here. Basically, it is surprisingly "easy" to generate voltages that oscillate like a sine wave.So this LO is about how does an alternating power source change what has already been observed for DC circuits. Harmonic motion to be described in full mathematical detail in mechanics year 3 Note: depending on whether students will already have complex numbers, students could investigate multiple sources with different phase because rms voltage/current/power are time averages of sinusoids, there is a connection to integral calculus

PH.2.13 - Analyze the filtering charactericstics of circuits containing capacitors and/or inductors

Time : Week 9 - 0

1. Explain the difference between the two kinds of semiconductors (pure - impure, or intrinsic/extrinsic).

2. Explain the presence of the energy band gap at a P-N junction

3. Calculate effective numbers of charge carriers

Describe impedance = resistance + reactance . Whether this should include full mathematical treatment including magnitudes of complex impedances will depend on whether it has been covered already, or will be done in the future. Even without math analysis, the frequency dependance of reactance should be demonstrated in laboratory or via simulation. Students should not be very surpised by filtering behivor b/c they have already seen the complementary behavior of capacitors and inductors in DC circuits Now though we are looking at complementary behavior of capacitors and inductors in AC circuits It is good to stress the oscillation of energy between electric and magnetic fields in LCR circuits For an application, filters are essential for communication systems

Semiconductors (2019)

PH.2.14 - Analyze the properties of conductors, insulators, and semiconductors in terms of energy bands and donor or acceptor...

Time : Week 10 - 0
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PH.2.15 - Analyze simple DC and AC circuits containing diodes.

Time : Week 11 - 0
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PH.2.14 - Analyze the properties of conductors, insulators, and semiconductors in terms of energy bands and donor or acceptor...

Time : Week 10 - 0

1.Compare with drawing between forward and backward connections of P-N junction.

2. Give examples of P-N junction applications.

3. Measure practically the current in each of the P-N junction connections.

5. Describe i-v properites of diodes in forward-bias

6. Describe i-v properties of diodes in reverse-bias

7. Analyze current through and voltage across resistive elements when a diode is present in a DC circuit

8. Analyze current through and voltage across resistive elements when a diode is present in an AC circuit

9. Explain how a rectifier circuit can be used for AC-DC conversion

This LO is the first of several LO's concerning quantum behavior and as such it should not be too mathematically intense. The basic quantum idea of discrete enerby levels must be discussed, plus the development of energy bands when many atoms are near each other in a solid. The quantum stuff is effectively used here to help explain the ability of a designer to manufacture materials of almost any conductivity between insulators and conductors. Identifying the properties of intrinsic semiconductors such as Si and Ge, and then the effect of adding dopants that are either donors or acceptors should be a focus. Calculation of the effective number of charge carriers should be covered.

PH.2.15 - Analyze simple DC and AC circuits containing diodes.

Time : Week 11 - 0

1. Draw a circuit to show the usage of the transistor as: a) switch.b) an amplifier.

2. Describe how a NOT gate can be designed with a single transistor

3. Implement logical expressions using standard logic gates

4. express by symbols PNP and NPN transistors

5. calculate the current gai (amplification factor) and current division factor of a transistor

This follows and amplifies the P/N junctions and band gaps discussed in previous LO-- The goal is to justify the threshold voltage, and the one-directionality of a basic diode. Discuss what should happen in forward bias,especially that there will be a threshold voltage.Do a lab demo/web simulation showing this. Follow up with a discussion of reverse bias, and breakdown voltage. Applications of both forward and reverse bias should be covered. Analysis of a DC circuit with one diode should be featured.This is done in two steps: (1) assuming diode is not conducting, and (2) diode is conducting. If diode is conducting, the threshold voltage appears across the diode (note connection with this past year's practical exam) For AC circuit, use a basic half-wave rectifier circuit to analyze/measure. A good assignment is to ask students how to design a full-wave rectifier. applications of circuits with diodes: LED's...rectifiers and AC/DC converters...

Transistors (2019)

PH.2.16 - Analyze basic circuits containing a bipolar transistor used as adigital switch or amplifier.

Time : Week 12 - Week 14
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PH.2.16 - Analyze basic circuits containing a bipolar transistor used as adigital switch or amplifier.

Time : Week 12 - Week 14

1. Describe travelling waves using sin(kx-wt)

2. Determine speed of waves on a string

3. Understand pressure and displacement views of a travelling longitudinal wave

This is an intro to basic n-p-n transistor --- just a description of how each interface works, and how the base current controlls collector-emitter current.Students should get abasic qualitative understanding of transistors being off and on --- and that when on the transistors are "saturated"...i.e.at some fixed level...which leads to the possibility of physically representing 1's and 0's . The idea of using 1's and 0's for everything leads to the binary system which will be covered in the next LO.For the purposes here, students should understand that transistors are turned off/on by controlling asmall base current, i.e allowing for switches activated by any small source of current. see http://www.allaboutcircuits.com/textbook/semiconductors/chpt-4/transistor-switch-bjt/