STEM
Grade 12
  first term
  Optics (2019)

  PH.3.01 - Analyze the motion of travelling transverse and longitudinal waves.
      Time : Week 1 - 0
1.Identify the amplitude of oscillation
2. Recognize the relationship between frequency and period
3. Measure oscillation parameters practically
4. Determine the free fall acceleration practically through the Oscillation of a pendulum
5. Apply the concept of energy conservation to simple harmonic motion
Stress that electromagnetic waves are non-mechanical waves, i.e. no medium required --- but fields are moving through empty space (this is a spiral back to fields) The power of physics: the mathematics here is same as travelling waves covered in mechanics year 2 S2, with the complicatin that there are E-fields and B-fields dancing around each other, with an energy flux density (Poynting vector) in direction of E x B ( a spiral to cross-product, which is covered in mechanics Y3S1) Sometime should be devoted to talking about how EM waves are created.. and the parallels with mechanical waves Speed of light in different media, and a wave description of index of refreaction would be very good if time permits Also, wondering if possible to talk about wave equation...at least show that sin(kx-wt) satisfies a certain type of differential equation (whcih may mean the first time partial differentiation is seen ... not sure if students will see this in calculus) finally, here's an excellent resource: http://en.tekstenuitleg.net/articles/networking/how-wireless-communication-works in which EM waves are done in context of wireless networks

  PH.3.02 - Analyze oscillatory motion.
      Time : Week 02 - Week 03
1. Use law of reflection to determine the position and size of image(s) formed when an object placed in front of a set of plane mirrors.
2. Predict image formed by concave/convex mirrors using ray-tracing and mirror equation.
3. Use optical bench to confirm mirror equations.
0
  Reflection of light (2019)

  PH.3.03 - Use geometrical optics and laws of reflectionto analyze the path of light rays in optical systems consisting of...
      Time : Week 03 - Week 04
1. Design a flowchart to express a communication system
2. Explain how information can be transmitted as variation in amplitude and frequency of waves
3. Use diagrams to design a system of communication
4. Analyze different communication systems to identify sorts of variation included
5. Apply previous knowledge (electronics, LASER, mechanical waves and em waves) to design
6. A system of communication and transmitting data
0
  Communications (2019)

  PH.3.04 - Design a system of communication through applying previous knowledge (electronics, LASER, mechanical...
      Time : Week 05 - Week 06
1. Convert base 10 values to binary and vice-versa
2. Explain how AM can be used to encode digital data.
3. Explain how FM can be used to encode digital data.
4. Analyze effect of sampling rate on data transmission
This LO allows for a dramatic tie-in with the previous LO, in which Planc's energy quanta are now identified with photons This LO allows you to spiral back to energy levels and bands that appeared at the end of physics Y2s2. In photoemissin problems, be sure to cover situations where incident intensity remains the same, or where it changes applications: solar cells --- lasers This LO is probably the right place to talk about the connections with wave view and particle view ... & the geometric optics approach. i.e. things like amplitude of wave is proportional to photon flux

  PH.3.05 - Describe how information can be transmitted via electromagnetic radiation
      Time : Week 07 - Week 08
1. Predict image formed by concave/convex lenses using ray-tracing and lens equation.
2. Determine critical angle for total internal reflection when light passes from more dense to less dense optical material.
3. Explain the optics of areflecting telescope.
4. Explain the optics of a refracting telescope.
5. Explain the optics of a compound microscope.
6. Use an optical bench to measure the focal point of lenses.
7. Use optical bench to confirm lens equations.
First real detailed to quantum stuff (recall that energy levels and energy bands, band gaps,etc. have been described in semiconductor LO's) Blackbody radiation is important. Wien's and Stefan-Boltzman Laws are topics for classroom, or reading, but are not essential to the quantum view. What is essential is Planck's explanation of black-body curve assuming quantized energy ... which ultimately became recognized as photon energy in photoelectric effect. If time permits, quantum explanatin of Wien is a good idea. It's also a good idea to start introducing phenomena that are explained by energy quantization, and observations that are analyzed using conservatin of energy principles. Hence Compton scattering and x-ray production are good examples. Check out this pdf of slideshow from UCSD: http://www-physics.ucsd.edu/students/courses/winter2009/physics1C/documents/8.1Particlenatureoflight.pdf
  Refraction of light. (2019)

  PH.3.06 - Use geometrical optics to analyze image formation from concave/convex lenses.
      Time : Week 09 - 0
1. Explain/analyze young double-slit experiment
2. Explain/analyze use of diffractio gratings to produce monochromatic radiation
3. Calculate the resolving power of an objective lens
Demos and laboratory are very effective here, especially for index of refraction and total internal reflection. It is encouraged to do a number of problems totally geometrically qualitatively, without resorting to formulas. In this way students should be encouraged to think more about which way light rays bend when passing through dense to less-dense optical material (or vice-versa) in addition to flat lenses, total internal reflection and fiber optics should also be discussed here is an excellent slide show on refraction from U Colorado: http://www.colorado.edu/physics/phys1230/phys1230_sp09/classnotes/6_Refraction.pdf

  PH.3.07 - Use wave description of light to analyze interference and diffraction.
      Time : Week 10 - Week 11
1. Describe experimental observatins that suggest light is a wave
2. Understand different regions of EM spectrum (IR, UV, visible, x-ray. etc..) and their uses
3. Explain how speed of light is determined
4. Explain evidence that speed of light constant in all reference frames
Note that some of the skills her are also listed in the LO before it...The two together are basically one long LO

  PH.3.08 - Analyze light as electromagnetic waves consisting of travelling electric and magnetic field waves
      Time : Week 12 - 0
1. Draw diagrams to express the resultant wave due to superposition between two waves.
2. Analyze the outcome of constructive and destructive interference of transverse wave pulses and use this to make predictions with other wave pulses.
3. Students will also recognize the standing wave on a resonant spring as being the superposition of two sinusoidal travelling waves.
This LO should focus more on encoding digital data into either analog or digital transmission. here's a website with the basic idea; http://www.qrg.northwestern.edu/projects/vss/docs/communications/1-how-is-data-put-on-radio-waves.html

  PH.3.09 - Analyze the production of complex waves using the principle of superposition.
      Time : Week 13 - Week 14
1. Explain blackbody radiation, including laws associated with ernergy distribution (Wien, Stefan-Boltzman)
2. Solve Wien and Stefan-Boltzman type problems 3. Explain impossibility of wave explanation (ultraviolet catastrophe)
4. Explain Planck's success in matching blackbody distribution using assumption of quantized energy changes
5. Determine relationship between kinetic energy of electrons and emitted photons in x-ray emission
6. Apply the law of conservation of energy in analysis of Compton scattering and x-ray production.
7. Determine relationship between kinetic energy of electrons and emitted photons in x-ray emission
8. Properties of photon (Energy, mass, momentum, rate of photons, force)
9. Solve problems on De-Broglie equation.
0
  Second Term
  Quantum Nature of Light (2019)

  PH.3.10 - Discuss evidence for the particle model of light and analyze specific situations in terms of energy, wavelength, and...
      Time : Week 01 - Week 03
1. Calculate cut-off frequency that will generate photoelectricity for a given material
2. Predict how photocurrent varies with changes in frequency and intensity
3. Compare wave and photon views of light
4. Describe principles behind photoabsorption and photoemission
5. Explain basic physics of Lasers 6. Explain basic physics of LED's
7. Explain basic conversion of light to electrical energy using photocell
8. Solar cell calculations:fill factor, efficiency; explanation of deviation from ideal behavior.
This LO brings back Newtonian ideas, namely the nature of force allowing electrons to spin in the Bohr model (which must be emphasized as definitely what is not actully happening in the atom, but nevertheless provides a model with very accurate predictive power. This is a nice opportunity to discuss the nature of physical models) The Bohr model can be used to go into incredible detail on the line spectra of hydrogen, including Balmer, Rydberg, etc. Push Bohr to higher Z atoms ionized so that only one electron remains is a worthwhile exercise. See http://courses.washington.edu/bhrchem/c152/Lec17.pdffor possibilities

  PH.3.11 - Analyze the interaction of light and matter using the Photoelectric Effect where appropriate.
      Time : Week 04 - Week 05
1. Explain typical metal crystal structures (Simple cube, fcc, bcc, hcp)
2. Analyze vibration modes in a 1-D crystal structure
3. Miller indecies.
4. Explain how photoelectron spectroscopy can be used to probe electron energy bands in solids
Depeding on what is done in CHM, there may be a lot of overlap here, including analysis of x-ray data for crystal structure determination. Plenty of simulations available for crystal structure, and erngy band formation
  Materials Physics 1: Thermal & Electrical Properties (2019)

  PH.3.12 - Explain the thermal and electrical properites of materials using quantum concepts from solid-state physics
      Time : Week 06 - Week 07
1. Explain several cooling mechanisms that can bring materials close to 0K
2. Explain the properties of superfluids
3. Explain some applications of superfluidity.
4. Explain the properties of some metals at very low temperature.
5. Explain some applications of superconductors.
Depending on the level to be covered, the material here can be quite mathematical, including, say, BCS theory of superconductivity.But this would involve coverage of phonons, coupled oscillators, etc. Same with superfluids: one would have to get into phonon distributions as functions of T.(Note: b/c of this, there are mathematical similarities between superfluids and superconductors) Probably best to be simply descriptive here, with focus on general rules of thumb, applications, and current research, e.g. high -T superconductors. Stress the energy benefits of superconductivity...
  Materials Physics 2: Low Temperature Physics (2019)

  PH.3.13 - Explain the superconductivity and/or superfluidity for certain materials at very low temperatures using quantum...
      Time : Week 08 - Week 09
1. Nanoparticles
2. Nanofabrication
3. Atomic force microscope
4. Scanning tunneling microscope
5. Nanotubes
Skills: Skills will depend on focus areas.For ideas see: http://www.nnin.org/education-training/k-12-teachers/nanotechnology-curriculum-materials
Essential Questions: How can the science and engineering of nanomaterials be used to design/create more energy efficient materials for construction in Egypt?
See Nanotechnology Classroom Activities and Curriculum Materials: an incredible resource for all disciplines, organized by school level and discipline... http://www.nnin.org/education-training/k-12-teachers/nanotechnology-curriculum-materials
  Materials Physics 3: Nanoparticles (2019)

  PH.3.14 - Decribe new mechanical and electrical properties for objects in the nanoscale range.
      Time : Week 10 - Week 11
Relativitistic kinematics has already been covered in mechanics (Y3S1). Now is the time to develop relativistic mass, energy-mass equivalent, etc....